Korean J Physiol Pharmacol.  2000 Jun;4(3):219-226.

Endotoxin-induced acute lung injury is mediated by PAF produced via remodelling of lyso PAF in the lungs

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung, Taegu 705-718, Korea.

Abstract

In order to elucidate the role of platelet activating factor (PAF) in the acute lung injury induced by endotoxin (ETX), activities of phospholipase A2, lyso PAF acetyltransferase and oxidative stress by neutrophilic respiratory burst were probed in the present study. To induce acute lung injury, 100 microgram of E.coli ETX (type 0127; B8) was instilled directly into the tracheae of Sprague-Dawley rats. Five hours after the ETX instillation, induction of acute lung injury was confirmed by lung leak index and protein contents in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. At the same time, lung phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and expression of group I and II secretory type PLA2 were examined. In these acutely injured rats, ketotifen fumarate, known as lyso PAF acetyltransferase inhibitor and mepacrine were administered to examine the role of PAF in the pathogenesis of the acute lung injury. To know the effect of the ETX in the synthesis of the PAF in the lungs, lyso PAF acetyltransferase activity and PAF content in the lungs were measured after treatments of ETX, ketotifen fumarate and mepacrine. In addition, the role of neutrophils causing the oxidative stress after ETX was examined by measuring lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) and enumerating neutrophils in the BAL fluid. To confirm the oxidative stress in the lungs, pulmonary contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. After instillation of the ETX in the lungs, lung leak index increased dramatically (p < 0.001), whereas mepacrine and ketotifen decreased the lung leak index significantly (p < 0.001). Lung PLA2 activity also increased (p < 0.001) after ETX treatment compared with control, which was reversed by mepacrine and ketotifen (p < 0.001). In the examination of expression of group I and II secretory PLA2, mRNA synthesis of the group II PLA2 was enhanced by ETX treatment, whereas ketotifen and WEB 2086, the PAF receptor antagonist, decreased the expression. The activity of the lysoPAF acetyltransferase increased (p < 0.001) after treatment of ETX, which implies the increased synthesis of PAF by the remodelling of lysoPAF in the lungs. Consequently, the contents of the PAF in the lungs were increased by ETX compared with control (p < 0.001), while mepacrine (p < 0.001) and ketotifen (p < 0.01) decreased the synthesis of the PAF in the lungs of ETX treated rats. The infiltration of the neutrophils was confirmed by measuring and enumerating lung MPO and the neutrophils in the BAL fluid respectively. Compared with control, ETX increased lung MPO and number of neutrophils in BAL significantly (p < 0.001) whereas mepacrine and ketotifen decrerased number of neutrophils (p < 0.001) and MPO (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). The lung MDA contents were also increased (p <0.001) by ETX treatment, but treatment with mepacrine (p < 0.001) and ketotifen (p < 0.01) decreased the lung MDA contents. Collectively, we conclude that ETX increases PLA2 activity, and that the subsequently increased production of PAF was ensued by the remodelling of the lyso PAF resulting in tissue injury by means of oxidative stress in the lungs.

Keyword

Acute lung injury; Endotoxin; PAF; Oxidative stress
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