J Genet Med.  1998 Mar;2(1):11-16.

Molecular and Cytogenetic Findings in 46,XX Males

  • 1Genetic Research Laboratory, Samsung Cheil Hospital College of Medicine, Sung Kyun Kwan University, Korea.


This paper reports 3 cases with 46,XX sex reversed male. Three 46,XX hypogonadal subjects showed complete sex reversal and had normal phallus and azoospermia. We studied them under clinical, cytogenetic and molecular aspects to find out the origin of the sex reversal. Patients had markedly elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH) and decreased or normal range of serum testosterone. The testicular volumes were small (3-8ml). Testicular biopsy showed Leydig cell hyperplasia and atrophy of seminiferous tubules. We obtained the results of normal 46,XX and XY dual fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) which could rule out the presence of Y chromosome mosaicism. By using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we amplified short arm (SRY, PABY, ZFY and DYS14), centromere (DYZ3), and heterochromatin (DYZ1) region of the Y chromosome. PCR amplification of DNA from these patients showed the presence of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) but didn't show the centromere and heterochromatin region sequence. The SRY gene was detected in all the three patients. Amplification patterns of the other regions were different in these patients; one had four amplified loci (PABY+, SRY+, ZFY+, DYS14+), another had two loci (SRY+, ZFY+) and the other had two loci (PABY+, SRY+). We have found that each patient's translocation elements had different breakpoints at upstream and downstream of the SRY gene region. We conclude that the testicular development in 46,XX male patients were due to insertion or translocation of SRY gene into X chromosome or autosomes.


46,XX sex reversed male; SRY gene; Testis development
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