Korean J Pediatr.  2005 Dec;48(12):1317-1323.

A Cytogenetic Study in Patients with Sex Chromosome Abnormalities

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Kyungpook National University, College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea. kslee@mail.knu.ac.kr
  • 2Jung Pediatric Clinic, Ansan, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
This study was performed to evaluate the recent frequency of karyotypes in different sex chromosome abnormalities and to evaluate the age and clinical manifestations at diagnosis. METHODS: Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from subjects who were clinically suspected to have sex chromosome abnormalities and referred to the cytogenetic laboratory in the Department of Pediatrics, Kyungpook National University Hospital from February 1981 to August 2001. RESULTS: The relative frequencies of different sex chromosome abnormalities were Klinefelter (52 percent), Turner (42 percent), XXX syndrome (3 percent) and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (3 percent). The populations of different karyotypes in Klinefelter syndrome were 47, XXY (97 percent) and 46, XY/ 47, XYY (3 percent). The populations of different karyotypes in Turner syndrome were 45, X (67 percent, ), mosaicism (23 percent), and structural aberrations (10 percent). The populations of different karyotypes in XXX syndrome were 47, XXX (67 percent, ) and 46, XX/47, XXX (33 percent). All mixed gonadal dysgenesis were 45, X/46, XY. Eighty one percent of sex chromosome abnormalities was diagnosed after puberty. Patients diagnosed with Klinefelter and Turner syndrome in infancy showed nearly normal phenotypes or had minor congenital malformations. CONCLUSION: Early diagnoses of sex chromosome abnormalities is required to prevent associated morbidities and to maximize growth and development. We have to pay careful attention in diagnoses of Turner syndrome because of the high proportion of mosaicism and structural aberrations.

Keyword

Sex chromosome abnormalities; Karyotype; Klinefelter syndrome; Turner syndrome; Mixed gonadal dysgenesis
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