Korean J Urol.  2008 Mar;49(3):208-214. 10.4111/kju.2008.49.3.208.

Radiofrequency Ablation of Unilateral Kidney VX2 Tumors in the Rabbit Model

  • 1Department of Urology, College of Medicine Pocheon CHA University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Urology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea. sijung@dau.ac.kr
  • 3Department of Radiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
  • 4Department of Urology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and indication of radiofrequency ablation(RFA) using renal VX2 tumors by implantation of VX2 tumor cells under the renal capsule in rabbits.
Ten rabbits were injected with 30-40microliter VX2 tumor cells(1.2x10(7) viable cells/ml) under the renal capsule of the right kidney by right subcostal incision. On the 14th day after the tumor cells were implanted, we checked for the development of renal tumors, and the sizes and shapes(exophytic or central) of the tumors by the use of computed tomography. We performed RFA in the renal VX2 tumors with a 17G StarBurst electrode through kidney exposure. After the first and third day following RFA, renal function was checked. On the third day, we performed CT and harvested the kidneys for gross and microscopic evaluation.
We confirmed the development of renal VX2 tumors in nine cases. Tumor shapes were exophytic in seven cases and central in two cases; the mean size of the tumors was 2.1 cm(range, 1.1-3.8cm). In all tumors, RFA was performed. From the use of enhanced CT after RFA on the third day, all of the lesions treated with RFA showed no enhancement. From the pathological findings, coagulative necroses were seen on all of the lesions treated with RFA. The necrotized tumor size after RFA was not different statistically as measured by CT and a pathological examination (p=0.833)
: In centrally located renal tumors, we experienced thermal injury in pelvocalyceal systems. RFA is an effective method for nephron sparing surgery as the tumor cells completely disappear and there is preserved renal function and the procedure is easy to apply. We suggest that the RFA method for exophytic renal tumors is more effective than other procedures.


Catheter ablation; Radiofrequency; Kidney neoplasms; Rabbits; VX2

MeSH Terms



  • Fig. 1. A VX2 renal tumor on the right kidney of a rabbit on the 14th day after the implantation of VX2 tumor cells as seen on a pre-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan. The tumor shape was exophytic (arrow).

  • Fig. 2. On the third day after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) a centrally located lesion of VX2 renal tumor that was treated with RFA was seen as low attenuation in an enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan (arrow).

  • Fig. 3. Gross findings after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for an exophytic type renal tumor on the right kidney; tumor necroses were seen (arrow). Pelvocalyceal systems were intact in spite of RFA.

  • Fig. 4. Gross findings after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for a central type renal tumor on the right kidney; tumor necroses were seen (arrow). Pelvocalyceal systems were damaged after RFA.

  • Fig. 5. Microscopic findings of a VX2 renal tumor before radiofrequency ablation (RFA), H&E staining, x100; hyperpigmented tumor cells were infiltrated in the renal parenchyme.

  • Fig. 6. Microscopic findings of VX2 renal tumor necrosis after radiofrequency ablation (RFA), H&E staining, x400; coagulation necrosis was seen and tumor cells were free in the necrotized area.


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