J Nutr Health.  2016 Oct;49(5):378-394. 10.4163/jnh.2016.49.5.378.

Development of nutrition quotient for Korean preschoolers (NQ-P): Item selection and validation of factor structure

  • 1Department of Food & Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food & Nutrition, Hannam University, Daejeon 34430, Korea.
  • 3Department of Food & Nutrition, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea.
  • 4Nutrition for the Future Inc., Seoul 08788, Korea.
  • 5Department of Statistics, Hannam University, Daejeon 34430, Korea.
  • 6Department of Food & Nutrition, Yongin University, Yongin 17092, Korea.
  • 7Department of Foodservice Management and Nutrition, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Korea.
  • 8Department of Food & Nutrition, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 38453, Korea. yschoi@daegu.ac.kr


Screening of preschool-age children for nutrition programs to improve dietary intake and behaviors requires cost-effective and easily administered validated assessment tools. The purpose of this study was to develop a parent/caregiver-administered instrument for measuring diet quality and behaviors of preschoolers as a nutrition quotient for preschoolers (NQ-P).
Development of NQ-P was carried out in three steps: item generation, item reduction, and validation. The 24-h dietary record was selected as the gold standard reference tool. The 38 items of the NQ-P checklist were derived from a systematic literature review, expert in-depth interviews, statistical analysis of the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, and national nutrition policies and recommendations. Self-administered questionnaires were delivered to parents who recorded 24-h dietary intakes of 100 responders aged 3~5 yr. Pearson's correlation was used to measure the level of agreement between questionnaires. Item reduction was performed, and 20 items were selected based on survey results, expert reviews, and priorities of national nutrition policy and recommendations. The 412 nationwide subjects sampled through daycare centers completed the 20-item checklist questionnaire. The construct validity of the NQ-P was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis, LISREL.
After analyses of exploratory factors, NQ-P items identified three dimensions of diet (balance, moderation, and environment). The three-factor structure accounted for 49.28% of the total variance. Standardized path coefficients were used as weights of the items. The NQ-P and three-factor scores of the subjects were calculated by the obtained weights of the questionnaire items.
A food behavior checklist for preschoolers' NQ would be a useful and suitable instrument for evaluating nutrition adequacy and dietary quality of Korean preschoolers.


preschoolers' nutrition quotient (NQ-P); food behavior; dietary quality; checklist
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