Exp Mol Med.  2004 Oct;36(5):444-453.

Involvement of Sox-4 in the cytochrome c-dependent AIF-independent apoptotic pathway in HeLa cells induced by delta12-prostaglandin J2

  • 1Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701, Korea. ikkim@catholic.ac.kr


delta12-Prostaglandin (PG) J2 is known to elicit an anti-neoplastic effects via apoptosis induction. Previous study showed delta12-PGJ2-induced apoptosis utilized caspase cascade through cytochrome c-dependent pathways in HeLa cells. In this study, the cellular mechanism of delta12-PGJ2- induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, specifically, the role of two mitochondrial factors; bcl-2 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was investigated. Bcl-2 attenuated delta12-PGJ2-induced caspase activation, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (delta psi m), nuclear fragmentation, DNA laddering, and growth curve inhibition for approximately 24 h, but not for longer time. AIF was not released from mitochondria, even if the delta psi m was dissipated. One of the earliest events observed in delta12-PGJ2-induced apoptotic events was dissipation of delta psi m, the process known to be inhibited by bcl-2. Pre-treatment of z-VAD- fmk, the pan-caspase inhibitor, resulted in the attenuation of delta psi m depolarization in delta12-PGJ2- induced apoptosis. Up-regulation of Sox-4 protein by delta12-PGJ2 was observed in HeLa and bcl-2 overexpressing HeLa B4 cell lines. Bcl-2 overexpression did not attenuate the expression of Sox-4 and its expression coincided with other apoptotic events. These results suggest that delta12-PGJ2 induced Sox-4 expression may activate another upstream caspases excluding the caspase 9-caspase 3 cascade of mitochondrial pathway. These and previous findings together suggest that delta12-PGJ2-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells is caspase-dependent, AIF-independent events which may be affected by Sox-4 protein expression up-regulated by delta12-PGJ2.


AIF; Apoptosis, Caspase; delta12-PGJ2; Sox-4

MeSH Terms

Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones/pharmacology
Antineoplastic Agents/*pharmacology
Apoptosis/drug effects/*physiology
Cytochromes c/physiology
Hela Cells
High Mobility Group Proteins/*physiology
Membrane Proteins/metabolism/*physiology
Prostaglandin D2/*pharmacology
Protein Transport/physiology
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/biosynthesis/*physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Trans-Activation (Genetics)
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