Yonsei Med J.  1991 Mar;32(1):58-63. 10.3349/ymj.1991.32.1.58.

Changes of cardiac output during treadmill exercise by impedance cardiography

  • 1Department of Physiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Nine athletes and ten nonathletes were selected randomly to study the changes of cardiac function during exercise by impedance cardiography. The speed of the treadmill was maintained at 3.4 mph, and its grade was increased by 1% (Balke protocol). The exercise was continued until the target heart rate (THR), 85% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). The measured parameters for pre- and post-exercise were stroke volume (SV), heart rate (HR), and cardiac output (CO). Average stroke volume of athletes at pre-exercise, 71.1 ml, was higher than that of nonathletes, 64.6 ml, and stroke volume of the former at post-exercise, 97.0 ml, was also higher than that of the latter, 85.2 ml. Therefore, despite the lower heart rate, cardiac outputs of athletes at pre- and post-exercise, 4.98 and 16.3 L/min, were higher than those of nonathletes, 4.87 and 14.2 L/min. For the second phase of the study, cardiac outputs of three subjects were measured during the continuous treadmill exercise with newly developed electrodes and shoes for minimizing motion artifact. Though there were several studies measuring cardiac output during continuous bicycle exercise, this is thought to be the first study in the world measuring cardiac output during continuous treadmill exercise without aid of ensemble averaging.


cardiac output; treadmill exercise; impedance cardiography; athletes; oxygen uptake

MeSH Terms

*Cardiac Output
*Cardiography, Impedance
Heart Rate
Sports Medicine
Stroke Volume
Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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