J Vet Sci.  2006 Dec;7(4):333-337. 10.4142/jvs.2006.7.4.333.

Pharmacokinetics, urinary excretion and dosage regimen of levofloxacin following a single intramuscular administration in cross bred calves

  • 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana-141004, India. vkdumka@yahoo.com
  • 2Faculty of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology, R S Pura, Jammu-181102, India.


The pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion following single intramuscular administration of levofloxacin at a dose of 4 mg/kg was investigated in seven male cross bred calves. Appreciable plasma concentration of levofloxacin (0.38 +/- 0.06 microgram/ml) was detected at 1 min after injection and the peak plasma level of 3.07 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml was observed at 1 h. The drug level above MIC(90) in plasma was detected up to 12 h after administration. Rapid absorption of the drug was also evident by the high value of the absorption rate constant (2.14 +/- 0.24 /h). The overall systemic bioavailability of levofloxacin, after intramuscular administration, was 56.6 +/- 12.4%. The high value of AUC (7.66 +/- 0.72 mg.h/ml) reflected the vast area of body covered by drug concentration. Extensive distribution of the drug into various body fluids and tissues was noted by the high value of Vd(area) (1.02 +/- 0.05 l/kg). The high ratio of AUC/MIC (76.6 +/- 7.25) obtained in this study indicated excellent clinical and bacteriological efficacy of levofloxacin in calves. The elimination half-life and MRT were 3.67 +/- 0.4 h and 5.57 +/- 0.51 h, respectively. The total body clearance (Cl(B)) was 204.9 +/- 22.6 ml/kg/h. On the basis of the pharmacokinetic parameters, a suitable intramuscular dosage regimen for levofloxacin in calves would be 1.5 mg/kg repeated at 12 h intervals.


calves; dosage; levofloxacin; pharmacokinetics; urinary excretion

MeSH Terms

Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage/blood/*pharmacokinetics/urine
Area Under Curve
Biological Availability
Injections, Intramuscular/veterinary
Ofloxacin/administration & dosage/blood/*pharmacokinetics/urine
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