Korean J Community Nutr.  2007 Oct;12(5):545-558.

Sodium Intakes of Korean Adults with 24-hour Urine Analysis and Dish Frequency Questionnaire and Comparison of Sodium Intakes According to the Regional Area and Dish Group

  • 1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Korea. sonsm@catholic.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea.
  • 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Dong-eui Univesity, Busan, Korea.
  • 4Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Research Institute of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea.
  • 5Department of Nutrition, Haneul Co., Seoul, Korea.


This study was performed to assess the sodium intakes of Korean adults using a 24-hr urine analysis and dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ) according to each dish group and the regional area. The subjects of this study were comprised of 552 adults (male: 267, female: 285), aged 20-59yr residing in the metropolitan area (N = 200), Chungcheng-Do (N = 117), Jeolla-Do (N = 117), and Gueongsang-Do provinces (N = 118). The subjects were recruited from the residents who once participated or are participating in the various health programs offered by the public health center. The number of subjects who completed the 24-hr urine collection was 205 (male : 110, female : 95).The mean age and BMI of the subjects were 39.0+/-11.7 y and 23.1+/-2.9 kg/m2, respectively. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 119.5+/-15.4 mmHg, and 77.1+/-11.1 mmHg, respectively. Eighteen percent of the subjects responded that they are currently smoking, 36% drinking and 50.4% exercising. Twenty point six percent of the subjects were assessed as having hypertension according to their systolic or diastolic blood pressure(SBP > or = 140 mmHg or DBP > or = 90 mmHg) measurements in the present study. Salt intake of the subject estimated with 24-hr sodium excretion was 12.7 g/d (male : 13.4 g/d, female : 12.1 g/d) based on the sodium excretion rate as 82%. Salt intake estimated with DFQ was 14.7 g/d (male : 16.2 g/d, female : 13.4 g/d), 2 g more than the salt intake estimated with 24-hr urine analysis. The four dish groups that contributed most to the sodium intake in order were kimchi (I1571.4mg), soup and stew (1260.5 mg), fish and shellfish (706.3 mg) and noodle and ramyeon (644.3mg). Salt intake estimated with DFQ was the highest in the subjects of Gueongsang-Do (17.0 g/d), second highest Chungcheong-Do (16.4 g/d) and the lowest in the metropolitan area (13.0 g/d). Subjects of Gueongsang-Do showed the highest sodium intakes in most of the dish group, whereas subjects of the metropolitan area showed the lowest. Residents of Chuncheong-Do revealed the highest sodium intake with kimchi and ofJeolla-Do the higher sodium intake with the main dish (meat, fish and beans). The highest salt percentage of kimchi (3.0+/-0.8%) and soybean paste (14.5 +/-5.1%) were observed in Gueongsang-Do, whereas individuals of the metropolitan area were observed as having kimchi (1.6 +/-0.5%) and soybean paste (7.4 +/-1.6%) with the lowest salt percentage. Men were observed as having more salty kimchi (2.4 +/-0.1%) than women (2.1 +/-0.1%).


sodium intakes; 24-hr urine analysis; dish frequency questionnaire; kimchi; soybean paste
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