Korean J Women Health Nurs.  2003 Dec;9(4):379-389.

Disease-Related Stress Experienced by Women with Mastectomy: Q Methodology

Affiliations
  • 1College of Nursing, The Catholic University, Korea.
  • 2St. Vincent Hospital, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE: To identify the type of disease-related stress experienced by women who received mastectomy for breast cancer using Q methodology. METHOD: Q sample included 30 statements obtained from literature and interviews with women with mastectomy. P sample consisted of 22 patients with mastectomy. The data were collected from November to December 2002 and analyzed using QUANL program. RESULT: Four types of disease-related stress experienced by women with mastectomy were found. Type 1 was manifested for a short duration following surgery and characterized by lowered self-esteem, feelings of emptiness and depression because of impaired body image. Type 2 was characterized by declined physical strength, resulting in frequent fatigue in the daily life and less intimate relationship with spouse. Type 3 was manifested by perfectionists with strong sense of self-pride who received or considered breast reconstruction surgery. Type 4 was reported by those who had long period of post-surgery. This type reported a strong sense of discomfort for wearing an artificial breast but didn't show any intention of trying breast reconstruction surgery.
CONCLUSION
Women with mastectomy were found to experience different type of disease-related distress. Therefore, nurses should assess the type of stress the patient experiences following a mastectomy to provide appropriate nursing care.

Keyword

Post mastectomy; Stress; Q-method

MeSH Terms

Body Image
Breast
Breast Neoplasms
Depression
Fatigue
Female
Humans
Intention
Mammaplasty
Mastectomy*
Nursing Care
Spouses
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