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Effector Pathways of Toll-like Receptor-inducible Innate Immune Responses in Macrophages

Jo EK, Suh HW, Park JK

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are well-characterized pattern recognition receptors that can recognize and respond to diverse pathogen-associated or danger-associated molecular patterns during infection. TLR signaling in macrophages triggers in the intracellular...
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Cellular and Molecular Mediators of Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer Disease

Yang SH

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of neuronal cells and the progressive decline of cognitive function. The major pathological culprit of AD is aggregation of...
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Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Inflammatory Diseases

Roh JS, Sohn DH

Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous danger molecules that are released from damaged or dying cells and activate the innate immune system by interacting with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Although...
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Dual Effect of Hepatic Macrophages on Liver Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury during Liver Transplantation

Lu TF, Yang TH, Zhong CP, Shen C, Lin WW, Gu GX, Xia Q, Xu N

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in liver transplantation (LT) and it is closely related to the recovery of grafts' function. Researches has verified that both innate and adaptive...
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Toll-like Receptor 1/2 Agonist Pam3CSK4 Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-driven IgG1 Production while Enhancing IgG2a Production by B Cells

Lee SH, Park SR

Interaction between pathogen-associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors triggers innate and adaptive immune responses. Several studies have reported that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation,...
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Regulatory Roles of the Caspase-11 Non-Canonical Inflammasome in Inflammatory Diseases

Yi YS

Inflammation is an immune response mediated by innate immune cells of tissues, against invading microbes and cellular stress. The hallmark of inflammatory responses is the activation of inflammasomes — multiprotein...
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Immunologic Mechanism of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Transplantation

Lee JS

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable consequence of organ transplantation that has major consequences for graft-and patient survival. During transplantation procedures, allografts are exposed to various periods of complete ischemia....
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Toll-like Receptor 2: A Novel Therapeutic Target for Ischemic White Matter Injury and Oligodendrocyte Death

Choi JY, Kim BG

Despite paramount clinical significance of white matter stroke, there is a paucity of researches on the pathomechanism of ischemic white matter damage and accompanying oligodendrocyte (OL) death. Therefore, a large...
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Generation of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells and Their Therapeutic Applications

Yoo S, Ha SJ

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that bridge innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby leading to immune activation. DCs have been known to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns such...
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NOD-Like Receptors in Infection, Immunity, and Diseases

Kim YK, Shin JS, Nahm MH

Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors similar to toll-like receptors (TLRs). While TLRs are transmembrane receptors, NLRs are cytoplasmic receptors that play a crucial role in...
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Polyionic vaccine adjuvants: another look at aluminum salts and polyelectrolytes

Powell BS, Andrianov , Fusco PC

Adjuvants improve the adaptive immune response to a vaccine antigen by modulating innate immunity or facilitating transport and presentation. The selection of an appropriate adjuvant has become vital as new...
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Host Immune Responses Against Type A Influenza Viruses

Cho H, Kang H

The influenza viruses are divided into 3 different types, A, B and C, all of them are known as human pathogens. However, only type A influenza viruses cause both epidemic...
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The in vivo and in vitro Roles of Epithelial Pattern Recognition Receptors in Pneumococcal Infections

Shin SG, Koh SH, Lim JH

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also called pneumococcus, is a major cause of infectious disease in human. Pneumococcus resides in the nasopharynx as an upper respiratory commensal, and most of pneumococcal colonizations are...
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A Decade of Research on TLR2 Discovering Its Pivotal Role in Glial Activation and Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Hayward JH, Lee SJ

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to a class of pattern recognition receptors that play an important role in host defense against pathogens. TLRs on innate immune cells recognize a wide variety...
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The Innate Immune Responses in Pathogenesis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis

Mo JH

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disease, and variousfactors, such as inflammation, infection, fungus, and superantigens, have been proposed to play crucial roles in its pathogenesis. Recently, the...
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Receptor Interacting Protein 2 (RIP2) Is Dispensable for OVA-Induced Airway Inflammation in Mice

Kim TH, Park YM, Ryu SW, Kim DJ, Park JH, Park JH

PURPOSE: Asthma is a pulmonary chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway obstruction and hyperresponsiveness. Pattern recognition receptors are known to play a key role in the development of allergic diseases...
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Role of Type I Interferon during Bacterial Infection

Min CK, Choi MS, Kim IS, Cho NH

Type 1 Interferons (T1 IFN) play a pivotal role in innate immune responses against viral infection. Recently, this anti-viral cytokines are shown to be induced during bacterial infections via activation...
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Role of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 and Reactive Oxygen Species in Toll-Like Receptor 2-Mediated Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 4 Expression

Kim SY, Baek SH

  • KMID: 2320038
  • Yeungnam Univ J Med.
  • 2013 Jun;30(1):10-16.
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well-known pattern recognition receptors. Among the 13 TLRs, TLR2 is the most known receptor for immune response. It activates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are...
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PKR as a Regulator of Inflammasome Activation

Manzoor Z, Koh YS

Detection of pathogen by pattern recognition receptors leads to activation of inflammasome which plays a crucial role in immune system. The inflammasome regulates the release of cytokines, such as interleukin...
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Sensing DNA Viruses and Bacteria by Intracellular DNA Sensors

Lee NR, Shin HB, Kim HI, Choi MS, Inn KS

The innate immune system confers first-line defense against various pathogens including bacteria and viruses. Early detection of invading pathogens by the host depends on a limited number of specific pattern...
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