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Progressive Transformation of Germinal Centers in Axillary Lymph Nodes Mimicking Metastatic Lymphadenopathy after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Case Report

Park SE, Cho KR, Song SE, Woo OH, Seo BK, Lee J

Progressive transformation of germinal centers (PTGC) is a rarely diagnosed, benign disease of the lymph nodes that commonly manifests as chronic lymphadenopathy. PTGC may be characterized by single or multiple...
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Role of immunoreactive patterns of lymph nodes in neck dissection cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma: a clinical and histopathological study

Bhatlawande HC, Kale AD, Desai KM, Hallikerimath S, Belaldavar C, Mane D, Angadi PV, M M, Muttagi S

OBJECTIVES: Metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) can occur in a variety of ways, and draining lymphatics and lymph nodes serve as a common route. Prior to metastasis, lymph...
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MicroRNA-mediated Regulation of the Development and Functions of Follicular Helper T cells

Lee J, Park H, Eom J, Kang SG

The germinal center reaction is a key event of humoral immunity, providing long-lived immunological memory. Follicular helper T (T(FH)) cells are a specialized subset of CD4⁺ T cells located in...
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Progressive Transformation of Germinal Centers in Presacral Space: MRI Findings and Literature Review

Hwang ST, Sung DJ, Sim KC, Han NY, Park BJ, Kim MJ, Lee JH

Progressive transformation of germinal centers (PTGC) is an atypical feature seen in lymph nodes with unknown pathogenesis. PTGC most commonly presents in adolescent and young adult males as solitary painless...
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Enforced Expression of CXCR5 Drives T Follicular Regulatory-Like Features in Foxp3⁺ T Cells

Kim YU, Kim BS, Lim H, Wetsel RA, Chung Y

CXCR5⁺ T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are associated with aberrant autoantibody production in patients with antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases including lupus. Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells expressing CXCR5 and Bcl6 have...
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Interleukin-17 Enhances Germinal Center Formation and Immunoglobulin G1 Production in Mice

Lee J, Lee SY, Kang CM, Jhun JY, Kim JH, Cho ML, Park SH, Kim HY, Kwok SK

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has pleiotropic effects on multiple target cells and thereby contributes to the development of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. However, the role of IL-17...
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Follicular Helper T (Tfh) Cells in Autoimmune Diseases and Allograft Rejection

Jeon YH, Choi YS

Production of high affinity antibodies for antigens is a critical component for the immune system to fight off infectious pathogens. However, it could be detrimental to our body when the...
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Blockade of STAT3 in T Cells Inhibits Germinal Center Reactions against Intranasal Allergens

Choi G, Chung Y

Understanding the developmental mechanisms of humoral immunity against intranasal antigens is essential for the development of therapeutic approaches against air-borne pathogens as well as allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. Follicular helper T...
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The Significance of Ectopic Germinal Centers in the Minor Salivary Gland of Patients with Sjogren's Syndrome

Lee KE, Kang JH, Yim YR, Kim JE, Lee JW, Wen L, Park DJ, Kim TJ, Park YW, Yoon KC, Lee JS, Lee SS

We investigated the clinical and biological significance of germinal centers (GC) present in the minor salivary glands of patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Minor salivary gland tissue biopsies from 93...
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Mikulicz's Disease with Progressively Transformed Germinal Centers-type Immunoglobulin G4-related Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Sjogren's Syndrome

Kim HJ, Kim JA, Min JK

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease, and lymphadenopathy is frequently observed in these patients. Among the 5 subtypes of IgG4-related lymphadenopathy, progressively transformed germinal centers (PTGC)-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy...
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Influence of NK cell count on the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP

Kim JK, Chung JS, Shin HJ, Song MK, Yi JW, Shin DH, Lee DS, Baek SM

BACKGROUND: Although adding rituximab to the chemotherapy regimen of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone (R-CHOP) has improved clinical outcomes of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), several recent studies...
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Insights into the Role of Follicular Helper T Cells in Autoimmunity

Park HJ, Kim DH, Lim SH, Kim WJ, Youn J, Choi YS, Choi JM

Follicular helper T (TFH) cells are recently highlighted as their crucial role for humoral immunity to infection as well as their abnormal control to induce autoimmune disease. During an infection,...
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Regulatory T Cells in B Cell Follicles

Chang JH, Chung Y

Understanding germinal center reactions is crucial not only for the design of effective vaccines against infectious agents and malignant cells but also for the development of therapeutic intervention for the...
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Micronodular Thymoma with Lymphoid Stroma in a Multilocular Thymic Cyst: A Case Study

Kim NR, Lee JI, Ha SY

  • KMID: 2277418
  • Korean J Pathol.
  • 2013 Aug;47(4):392-394.
Herein, we report a case of micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma in a previously healthy 73-year-old male. Thymectomy was performed. The solid and macrocystic masses were encapsulated with focal invasion....
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Germinal Center Formation Controlled by Balancing Between Follicular Helper T Cells and Follicular Regulatory T Cells

Park HJ, Kim DH, Choi JM

Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) play a significant role in providing T cell help to B cells during the germinal center reaction, where somatic hypermutation, affinity maturation, isotype class switching,...
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The Niche of Follicular Helper T Cells in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

Jang E, Youn J

Production of thymus-dependent antibodies by autoreactive B cells requires help from T cells. Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are a unique lineage of CD4+ T subsets present in the follicles...
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Progressive Transformation of Germinal Centers in Submandibular Area: Case Report

Park SW, Jang SM, Kim DY, Son JH, Cho YC, Sung IY

  • KMID: 2009682
  • J Korean Assoc Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg.
  • 2011 Jul;33(4):368-372.
Progressive transformation of germinal centers (PTGC) is mostly a disease of young adults and it presents as unexplained, asymptomatic, localized or generalized lymphadenopathy that is usually persistent or recurrent over...
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Prognostic Value of Immunohistochemical Biomarkers at Different Cut-off Values in Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Treated with CHOP Chemotherapy

Oh S, Koo DH, Suh C, Kim S, Park BH, Kang J, Huh J

Many predictive models have been proposed for better stratification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Hans' algorithm has been widely used as standard to sub-classify DLBCL into germinal center B-cell...
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The Association between Cytogenetic Abnormalities and Clinical Outcomes Based on Prognostic Factors of the Children Cancer Group (CCG) in Pediatric Patients with Acute Leukemia: Two Institutional Retrospective Studies

Bae JJ, Jang YS, Kim JY, Lim YJ, Park HK, Han JY, Lee YH

BACKGROUND: We investigated the incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities as well as the correlation of the cytogenetic abnormalities and clinical outcomes based on the prognostic factors of the Children Cancer Group...
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Clinical Experiences of PTGC(Progressively Transforming Germinal Center) in Neck Lymph Nodes

Nam DH, Choi HJ, Kim MS, Lee YM

  • KMID: 1918018
  • J Korean Cleft Palate-Craniofac Assoc.
  • 2006 Apr;7(1):22-25.
First described in 1975 by Lennert and Muller-Hermelink, progressively transforming germinal centers(PTGC) are follicular structures that are at least two to three times the diameter of a reactive follicle and...
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